Nobel season is here: Five things to know about the prizes | Explainer News

Nobel Peace Prize is offered in Norway, whereas different awards resembling literature and economics are handed out in Sweden.

The start of October means Nobel Prize season. Over the course of six days, names of the winners of six prizes will probably be introduced from across the globe, resulting in some new faces being added to the world’s most elite roster of scientists, writers, economists and human rights leaders.

This 12 months’s Nobel season kicks off on Monday with the award in drugs, adopted by each day bulletins: physics on Tuesday, chemistry on Wednesday and literature on Thursday. The 2022 Nobel Peace Prize will probably be introduced on Friday and the economics award on October 10.

Listed here are 5 different issues to know in regards to the coveted prizes:

Who created the Nobel Prizes?

  • The prizes in drugs, physics, chemistry, literature and peace had been established by the desire of Alfred Nobel, a rich Swedish industrialist and inventor of dynamite. The primary awards had been handed out in 1901, 5 years after Nobel’s loss of life.
  • Every prize is price 10 million kronor (almost $900,000) and will probably be handed out with a diploma and gold medal on December 10 – the date of Nobel’s loss of life in 1896.
  • The economics award – formally often called the Financial institution of Sweden Prize in Financial Sciences in Reminiscence of Alfred Nobel – was not created by Nobel, however by Sweden’s central financial institution in 1968.
  • Between 1901 and 2021, the Nobel Prizes and the prize in financial sciences have been awarded 609 instances.

Who is aware of who will win and why?

  • The Nobel statutes prohibit the judges from discussing their deliberations for 50 years. So it’s in all probability going to be some time earlier than we all know for certain how judges made their picks for 2022 and who was on their shortlists.
  • The judges strive exhausting to keep away from dropping hints in regards to the winners earlier than the bulletins, however typically phrase will get out. Bookies in Europe typically supply odds on doable peace prize and literature Nobel winners.
    INTERACTIVE- Nobel Prize Winners country
    (Al Jazeera)

Who can nominate a candidate?

  • Hundreds of individuals world wide are eligible to submit nominations for the Nobel Prizes.
  • They embrace college professors, lawmakers, earlier Nobel laureates and the committee members themselves.
  • Though the nominations are stored secret for 50 years, those that submit them typically announce their options publicly, notably for the Nobel Peace Prize.

What in regards to the Norwegian connection?

  • The Nobel Peace Prize is offered in Norway whereas the opposite awards are handed out in Sweden. That’s how Alfred Nobel wished it.
  • His actual causes are unclear however throughout his lifetime Sweden and Norway had been joined in a union, which was dissolved in 1905. Generally relations have been tense between the Nobel Basis in Stockholm, which manages the prize cash, and the fiercely impartial peace prize committee in Oslo.

What does it take to win a Nobel?

  • Endurance, for one. Scientists typically have to attend for many years to have their work recognised by the Nobel judges, who wish to make it possible for any breakthrough withstands the take a look at of time.
  • That may be a departure from Nobel’s will, which states that the awards ought to endow “those that, through the previous 12 months, shall have conferred the best profit to mankind”. The peace prize committee is the one one which often rewards achievements made within the earlier 12 months.
  • In keeping with Nobel’s needs, that prize ought to go to “the one who shall have accomplished essentially the most or the most effective work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or discount of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses”.
    INTERACTIVE- Nobel Prize Categories
    (Al Jazeera)

Ukraine hails ‘next step towards liberation’ as Russia retreats | Russia-Ukraine war News

After being encircled by Ukrainian forces, Russia pulled troops out from the strategic jap Ukrainian metropolis of Lyman – the newest victory for Kyiv’s counteroffensive that has humiliated and angered Moscow.

The announcement on Saturday got here a day after President Vladimir Putin proclaimed the annexation of 4 Ukrainian areas – together with Donetsk, the place Lyman is positioned – and positioned them below Russia’s nuclear umbrella, at a ceremony condemned by Kyiv and the West as an illegitimate farce.

“In reference to the creation of a risk of encirclement, allied troops have been withdrawn from the settlement of Krasny Liman to extra advantageous strains,” Russia’s defence ministry mentioned, utilizing the Russian title of town.

President Volodymyr Zelenskyy later mentioned in a video tackle though the Ukrainian flag was flying within the metropolis, “preventing remains to be happening there”.

He additionally indicated Ukrainian troops had taken the village of Torske, on the principle street out of Lyman to the east.

The Russian assertion ended hours of official silence after Ukraine first mentioned it surrounded hundreds of Russian troops within the space after which that its forces have been inside town.

Ukraine’s defence ministry wrote on Twitter that “virtually all” the Russian troops in Lyman had both been captured or killed.

‘Drastic measures’

Positioned 160km (100 miles) southeast of Kharkiv, Ukraine’s second-largest metropolis, Lyman is within the Donetsk area close to the border with Luhansk, two areas that Russia annexed on Friday.

“The Russian grouping within the space of Lyman is surrounded,” mentioned Serhii Cherevatyi, spokesperson for Ukraine’s jap forces.

Russia has used Lyman as a logistics and transport hub for its operations within the north of the Donetsk area. Its seize can be Ukraine’s largest battlefield acquire since a counterattack within the northeastern Kharkiv area final month.

The current Ukrainian successes have infuriated Putin allies akin to Ramzan Kadyrov, the chief of Russia’s southern Chechnya area, who mentioned he felt compelled to talk out.

“In my private opinion, extra drastic measures ought to be taken, proper as much as the declaration of martial legislation within the border areas and using low-yield nuclear weapons,” Kadyrov wrote on Telegram.

Different prime Putin allies, together with former President Dmitry Medvedev, have urged Russia might must resort to nuclear weapons, however Kadyrov’s name was essentially the most pressing and express.

Putin mentioned final week he was not bluffing when he mentioned he was ready to defend Russia’s “territorial integrity” with all accessible means, and on Friday made clear this prolonged to the brand new areas claimed by Moscow.

Washington says it could reply decisively to any use of nuclear weapons and has spelled out to Moscow the “catastrophic penalties” it could face.

‘Psychologically essential’

Two Ukrainian troopers taped the yellow-and-blue nationwide flag to the Lyman welcome signal at an entrance to town, a video posted by the president’s chief of workers confirmed.

“October 1. We’re unfurling our state flag and establishing it on our land. Lyman will likely be Ukraine,” one of many troopers mentioned.

Ukraine mentioned controlling Lyman would permit Kyiv to advance into the Luhansk area, whose full seize Moscow introduced in early July after weeks of grinding advances.

“Lyman is vital as a result of it’s the subsequent step in the direction of the liberation of the Ukrainian Donbas. It is a chance to go additional to Kreminna and Severodonetsk, and it’s psychologically essential,” Cherevatyi mentioned.

Donetsk and Luhansk areas make up the broader Donbas area that has been a significant focus for Russia since quickly after the beginning of Moscow’s invasion on February 24 in what it calls a “particular navy operation” to demilitarise its neighbour.

Putin proclaimed the Donbas areas of Donetsk and Luhansk and the southern areas of Kherson and Zaporizhia to be Russian land on Friday – a swath of territory equal to about 18 % of Ukraine’s complete floor land space.

Ukraine and its Western allies branded Russia’s transfer as unlawful. Kyiv promised to proceed liberating its land from Russian forces and mentioned it could not maintain peace talks with Moscow whereas Putin remained president.

In the meantime, on the Russian-annexed Crimean Peninsula, the governor of town of Sevastopol introduced an emergency scenario at an airfield there. Explosions and large billows of smoke could possibly be seen by beachgoers within the Russian-held resort. Authorities mentioned a airplane rolled off the runway on the Belbek airfield, and mentioned ammunition on board had caught fireplace.

Ukrainian authorities accused Russian forces of targetting two humanitarian convoys in current days, killing dozens of civilians.

In different developments, in an obvious try to safe Moscow’s maintain on the newly annexed territory, Russian forces seized the director-general of the Zaporizhzhia nuclear energy plant, Ihor Murashov.