Japan court upholds ban on same-sex marriage but offers hope | LGBTQ News

A courtroom in Japan’s capital has upheld a ban on same-sex marriage however mentioned an absence of authorized safety for same-sex households violated their human rights.

Japan is the one G7 nation that doesn’t enable same-sex marriage and its structure defines marriage as primarily based on the mutual consent of each sexes.

In Wednesday’s ruling, the Tokyo district courtroom mentioned the ban was constitutional however added that “the present lack of authorized framework that permits same-sex companions to grow to be household is a severe menace and impediment” to particular person dignity.

This creates an “unconstitutional scenario”, the courtroom mentioned.

Nobuhito Sawasaki, one of many attorneys concerned within the case, known as the choice “a reasonably optimistic ruling”.

“Whereas marriage stays between a person and a girl, and the ruling supported that, it additionally mentioned that the present scenario with no authorized protections for same-sex households will not be good, and prompt one thing have to be performed about it,” he advised the Reuters information company.

Japan doesn’t allow same-sex {couples} to marry or inherit one another’s property, equivalent to a shared dwelling, and denies them parental rights to one another’s kids – even hospital visits might be troublesome. Although partnership certificates from municipalities cowl about 60 % of Japan’s inhabitants, they don’t give same-sex {couples} the identical rights loved by heterosexual {couples}.

The Tokyo ruling guarantees to be influential because the capital has an outsized affect on the remainder of Japan.

It had been keenly awaited after hopes have been raised by a 2021 ruling within the metropolis of Sapporo that the same-sex marriage ban was unconstitutional, though one other resolution in Osaka in June upheld the ban.

Plaintiffs hold placards that read read "A step towards Marriage Equality".
Japan is the one G7 nation that doesn’t enable same-sex marriage [Kim Kyung-Hoon/ Reuters]

The eight plaintiffs within the Tokyo case had mentioned the ban contravened their human rights and demanded damages of 1 million yen ($7,215), which the courtroom rejected.

“That is laborious to just accept,” mentioned Gon Matsunaka, head of the activist group Marriage for All Japan.

Each heterosexual and same-sex {couples} ought to be capable of profit equally from the system of marriage, as everyone seems to be equal underneath the legislation, he added. “It [the ruling] clearly mentioned that’s not potential.”

But the popularity that same-sex households lacked authorized protections was “an enormous step”, he mentioned.

‘That is only the start’

The plaintiffs, who unfurled a banner outdoors the courtroom that learn “A step ahead for Marriage Equality” after the ruling, mentioned they have been inspired.

“There have been elements of this that have been disappointing however elements of it gave me hope,” mentioned one in every of them, Katsu, who gave solely his first title.

Two extra circumstances are pending in Japan and activists and attorneys hope an accumulation of judicial choices supporting same-sex marriage will ultimately push legislators to alter the system, even when that is unlikely to occur quickly.

Prime Minister Fumio Kishida’s conservative ruling occasion has revealed no plans but to overview the matter or suggest adjustments however a number of senior members assist same-sex marriage.

Plaintiff Chizuka Oe mentioned she hoped Wednesday’s ruling would spur a debate within the Japanese parliament.

“I used to be glad that the ruling acknowledged now we have a proper to be households,” she advised a information convention, including that her companion of greater than 20 years “is my invaluable household it doesn’t matter what anybody says”.

Oe mentioned the struggle would proceed till there was actual progress. “That is only the start,” she mentioned.

Supporters hold a banner that says 'Marriage for all Japan'
Supporters wait outdoors the courtroom for the ruling on the constitutionality of same-sex marriage, in Tokyo, Japan, November 30, 2022 [Kim Kyung-Hoon/ Reuters]

Amnesty Worldwide additionally known as the Tokyo courtroom’s acknowledgement of the rights of same-sex {couples} to have households as “a trigger for hope”.

“This isn’t the ruling the LGBTI neighborhood wished, however it’s nonetheless an vital step ahead for same-sex {couples} and LGBTI rights in Japan,” mentioned Amnesty’s East Asia Researcher Boram Jang. “Nonetheless, way more must be performed to fight the discrimination confronted by LGBTI individuals in Japanese society. It’s time for the federal government to alter course on LGBTI rights.”

Current years have seen Japan take small steps in the direction of embracing sexual range.

Tokyo started issuing certificates recognising same-sex {couples} this month, permitting them to use for public housing in the identical method as married {couples}, take pleasure in entry to medical information and be named beneficiaries in automotive and life insurance coverage. Since 2015, greater than 200 smaller cities have taken related steps however they don’t seem to be legally binding and nonetheless not the identical as in marriage.

The scenario has restricted the expertise pool for world companies, say teams such because the American Chamber of Commerce in Japan.

“Serious about the way forward for their lives, they don’t see something in Japan,” mentioned Masa Yanagisawa, head of prime companies at financial institution Goldman Sachs and a member of the group Marriage for All Japan.

“So that they transfer to extra pleasant jurisdictions, like the USA.”

The Tokyo courtroom ruling got here a day after the US Senate handed a same-sex marriage safety invoice and Singapore lifted a ban on homosexual intercourse however restricted the prospects for legalising same-sex marriage.

Should the EU impose a travel ban on all Russians? | Russia-Ukraine war News

After the Ukraine conflict started, the European Union was fast to limit Russian nationals from coming into.

However whether or not the 27-member union ought to completely ban Russian vacationers is up for debate.

The bloc’s japanese members – together with the Baltic states and Poland – are in favour of such a transfer, whereas EU powerhouses France and Germany have voiced opposition to the concept.

INTERACTIVE - RUSSIAN NATIONALS EU

Al Jazeera spoke to Natia Seskuria, a Russia knowledgeable and affiliate fellow on the Royal United Companies Institute for Defence and Safety Research (RUSI), a United Kingdom-based think-tank, in regards to the ethical and sensible implications of restrictions.

Al Jazeera: You will have known as for the EU to impose a blanket ban on Russian vacationers. Why?

Natia Seskuria: That is fairly a radical resolution, however the occasions we’re residing in and what Ukrainians are experiencing proper now are very excessive.

It’s crucial that Russian residents really feel the burden and actual penalties of this conflict.

I, after all, don’t assume {that a} visa ban will pressure [Russian President Vladimir] Putin to cease the conflict – there are far larger leverages equivalent to sanctions and they’re getting used proper now in various levels by the West.

However that is one strategy to make unusual residents really feel accountability and make them acknowledge what their regime is doing in opposition to Ukrainians.

Al Jazeera: The choice argument is that the EU’s borders ought to be open for Russians, significantly for individuals who face being pressured into conflict …

Seskuria: The issue is that it’s not essentially the case that Russians who’re fleeing the nation are in opposition to the conflict.

There are individuals who help the conflict, however simply don’t wish to go and struggle in it themselves and threat their lives.

If the EU’s borders keep open, they’ll obtain lots of people who will not be solely determined to flee Russia’s extraordinarily violent and authoritarian regime … but additionally plenty of Russians who’ve voted for Putin and who can be completely happy if he wins this conflict. This is clearly very problematic.

On the subject of humanitarian visas, the EU can work on that as a result of there are journalists, civil society activists and others who’ve opposed the conflict from the start and wish to escape however can not as a result of they don’t have the appropriate to take action presently.

That is one hole that ought to be addressed correctly [by the EU].

Al Jazeera: Russia is an unlimited nation with an enormous inhabitants. Who precisely do you assume can be affected by an outright ban?

Seskuria: A variety of Russian residents don’t also have a passport. Poverty in Russia is a big drawback and plenty of Russians have by no means travelled overseas.

So this outright vacationer visa ban would goal particular societal teams and people are the center lessons and higher lessons.

[For many], the one possibility can be to journey in direction of Central Asia, which is comparatively cheaper.

There’s a sure section that may be focused by this ban … and it’s these Russians who’ve been significantly hypocritical by spending plenty of time in Western European states whereas additionally nonetheless supporting the oppression and violence that Putin’s regime has exercised.

Al Jazeera: Highly effective EU members France and Germany have warned in opposition to bans, saying the restrictions would feed into Moscow’s anti-Western narrative and threat estranging future generations of Russians. What’s the chance of a complete journey ban?

Seskuria: I don’t assume it’s going to occur, as a result of this dialogue has been ongoing since at the least late summer time. We’ve got seen sentiments differ in several nations.

France and Germany particularly have made it fairly clear that this is not going to be one thing they’ll help. So I believe it’s going be as much as particular person member states to make selections and introduce a [national-level] visa ban or not.

I’m not anticipating the EU to announce a unified resolution.

Al Jazeera: What may unfold in non-EU nations that border Russia, equivalent to Georgia and Kazakhstan, which have welcomed floods of Russians fleeing the draft?

Seskuria: It’s an attention-grabbing state of affairs as a result of none of those nations has skilled such an enormous stream of Russians earlier than and plenty of their residents are very pissed off by the inflow.

There’s a sure stress on these governments to impose new visa laws, as a result of in Georgia, it’s presently the case that anybody [with a Russian passport] can enter except they’ve violated the regulation in occupied territories [held by Moscow] or bear pro-war symbols.

There isn’t any actual limitation – they will keep for a 12 months, and after that, in the event that they cross the border for a day and are available again, they’re permitted to remain for an additional 12 months. They will transfer nearly indefinitely to the nation.

Russia has used a pretext of defending its residents many occasions within the case of [taking military action in] Georgia and in Ukraine. Lots of people are apprehensive that in some unspecified time in the future, Putin may simply declare that he has to “defend” his residents in Georgia in opposition to the “Georgian oppressors” let’s say, and he can escalate tensions which can be already there.

I’m undecided whether or not the [Georgian] authorities will impose any kind of restrictions as a result of it additionally seems at that as perhaps being perceived as some kind of provocative transfer, so they’re taking a really a lot cautious stance.

Though I’m not anticipating any measures to be instantly enforced, there may be actually plenty of frustration inside society. It’s the similar in Kazakhstan, the place lots of people have gotten apprehensive about this big inflow of Russians.

And there are questions, for instance, about what these Russians can be doing going ahead, equivalent to if and once they run out of cash as a result of clearly, it’s going to be laborious for them, particularly in Georgia, as a result of Georgia shouldn’t be a Russian-speaking nation … to relocate, discover jobs and quiet down.

Al Jazeera: After the mobilisation order, some EU states closed the door on Russian vacationers. How do you assume the state of affairs might evolve from right here?

Seskuria: It’s positively rather more troublesome now [for Russians] to search out the loopholes and enter the EU [and the Schengen Area zone] as a result of Finland, Poland and the Baltic states – those which have the land borders with Russia – have now adopted fairly a tricky place.

Some can, for instance, journey to Turkey after which relocate to totally different nations utilizing air connections, however that clearly incurs monetary prices and lots of people, I assume, wouldn’t be capable to afford that.

So though there are nonetheless methods [for Russians to enter the EU] … with all the restrictions, Russians perceive they’ve much less likelihood to search out shelter within the bloc.

General, I believe we’ll nonetheless see some numbers nonetheless arriving, however these will lower. However on the similar time, I don’t count on some unified coverage to be adopted. I believe it’s going to proceed to be as fragmented as it’s proper now and it’s going to be as much as particular person nations to make additional selections.

This interview was flippantly edited for brevity and readability.

US woman denied abortion wants clarity on ‘vague’ Louisiana ban | Politics News

Nancy Davis, who’s 15 weeks pregnant, says she plans to journey out of state for a ‘medically mandatory’ abortion.

A pregnant Louisiana lady who was denied an abortion — regardless that her fetus has a uncommon and deadly situation — has demanded that Governor John Bel Edwards and the legislature name a particular session to make clear the state’s restrictions on the process.

Nancy Davis, who’s 15 weeks pregnant, stated on Friday that she’s going to journey out of state subsequent week for a “medically mandatory” abortion.

A state legislation at present in impact bans all abortions besides if there may be substantial danger of loss of life or impairment to the girl if she continues her being pregnant and within the case of “medically futile” pregnancies. Davis, 36, and abortion-rights advocates for months have criticised the laws as imprecise and complicated.

Their considerations are being echoed in quite a few different states that, like Louisiana, handed so-called set off legal guidelines when the US Supreme Courtroom overturned Roe v Wade, the landmark 1973 choice guaranteeing a constitutional proper to abortion.

Roughly a dozen states at present ban abortions in any respect levels of being pregnant, with some permitting for slender exceptions resembling in circumstances of rape, incest or when the pregnant lady’s life is at risk.

“Ms Davis was among the many first ladies to be caught within the crosshairs of confusion resulting from Louisiana’s rush to limit abortion, however she’s going to hardly be the final,” Ben Crump, a lawyer for Davis, stated throughout a information convention held on the state’s Capitol steps on Friday.

Ten weeks into Davis’s being pregnant, medical doctors at Lady’s Hospital in Baton Rouge recognized the fetus she is carrying with acrania, a uncommon and deadly situation through which the newborn’s cranium fails to kind within the womb.

Davis was informed that if she introduced the being pregnant to full time period and gave start, the newborn would possible survive for a really quick period of time — wherever from a number of minutes to per week. The physicians suggested Davis to get an abortion, however stated they may not carry out the process.

“Principally, they stated I needed to carry my child to bury my child,” Davis stated. “They appeared confused in regards to the legislation and afraid of what would occur to them.”

If a physician performs an unlawful abortion in Louisiana, they may withstand 15 years in jail.

In an announcement final week to information retailers, spokesperson Caroline Isemann stated Lady’s Hospital was not capable of touch upon a particular affected person, however reiterated that it’s the hospital’s mission to supply the “absolute best care for girls” whereas complying with state legal guidelines and insurance policies.

Since then, the legislation’s creator, Senator Katrina Jackson, and different legislators have stated that Davis qualifies for an abortion and that the hospital “grossly misinterpreted” the statute. But in a written assertion Tuesday signed by Jackson and 35 others, together with 9 different ladies, they indicated that lots of them share a spiritual religion that will “compel us to hold this little one to time period”.

Davis and her legal professionals stated they don’t blame the medical doctors, however the vagueness of the legislation.

“The legislation is obvious as mud,” Crump stated. “Each ladies’s scenario is completely different and topic to interpretation, so after all, medical professionals don’t need to danger jail or to need to pay a whole lot of hundreds of {dollars} of fines for making the flawed name. Who would simply take any person’s phrase for it when their liberty is in jeopardy?”

A lawsuit filed by an abortion clinic in Shreveport and others has been in course of because the new legislation took impact. The laws has, by turns, been blocked after which enforced because the go well with makes its method by means of the courts. The latest ruling allowed enforcement of the legislation. Plaintiffs difficult the ban don’t deny the state can now prohibit abortions; they argue that the legislation’s provisions are contradictory and unconstitutionally imprecise.

Whereas Davis has not filed a grievance or lawsuit, she desires Louisiana legislators to carry a particular session to make clear the legislation. Their subsequent common session is scheduled for April 2023.

“Think about what number of ladies could also be affected earlier than [lawmakers] come again into session,” Crump stated. “What number of extra Nancy Davises should endure the psychological anguish and psychological cruelty earlier than the legislators clear up these imprecise and ambiguous legal guidelines.”

India facing football ban over ‘deviations’ from FIFA ‘roadmap’ | Football News

FIFA additionally warned Indian soccer affiliation it dangers dropping U17 Girls’s World Cup too.

FIFA has reminded India’s soccer affiliation that it dangers dropping the upcoming Below-17 Girls’s World Cup and faces a ban as a result of “deviations” from an agreed highway map aimed toward checking out governance points.

In Might, India’s highest courtroom disbanded the All India Soccer Federation (AIFF) and appointed a three-member committee to control the game, amend the AIFF’s structure and conduct elections which were pending for 18 months.

In response, soccer’s world governing physique FIFA and the Asian Soccer Confederation (AFC) despatched a group, led by AFC Common Secretary Windsor John, to fulfill stakeholders in Indian soccer and laid down a highway map for the AIFF to amend its statutes by the top of July and subsequently conclude elections on the newest by September 15.

This week, the Indian courtroom ordered elections to be held promptly and stated the elected committee could be an interim physique for a interval of three months.

“As per the stated roadmap, the AIFF was to name for a particular basic meeting on the primary week of August 2022 to approve the brand new statutes labored upon with FIFA, the AFC and the Indian soccer neighborhood,” a letter despatched by FIFA and AFC stated.

“Sadly, we have now been knowledgeable that the Supreme Courtroom’s listening to held yesterday on the state of affairs of the AIFF allegedly resulted in deviations to the aforementioned roadmap.

“If that is thought of to be true, it might irrefutably jeopardise the mutual understanding which was displayed to date on the steps ahead.”

The letter, seen by Reuters information company, was addressed to appearing AIFF basic secretary Sunando Dhar and signed by FIFA secretary basic Fatma Samoura and AFC’s John.

It requested the Indian physique to offer a transcript of the courtroom’s resolution by Tuesday.

FIFA warned that sanctions, if severe deviations to the agreed highway map have been discovered, may embrace “the suspension of the AIFF and the withdrawal of the internet hosting rights for the 2022 FIFA U-17 Girls’s World Cup in India [in October]”.

The elections of the AIFF, previously led by FIFA Council member Praful Patel, have been to be held by December 2020 however have been delayed as a result of an deadlock over amendments to its structure.

FIFA statutes say that member federations have to be free from authorized and political interference of their respective nations, and the world governing physique has beforehand suspended different nationwide associations over comparable circumstances.

Judge blocks enforcement of pre-Roe abortion ban in West Virginia | Health News

Decide’s ruling opens the door for abortion companies to renew in US state in aftermath of overturning of Roe v Wade.

A decide in West Virginia has blocked authorities within the US state from imposing an abortion ban that dates again to the 1800s, as fierce authorized battles proceed following america Supreme Court docket’s choice final month to overturn the landmark Roe v Wade abortion ruling.

Kanawha County Circuit Court docket Decide Tera L Salango granted the Ladies’s Well being Middle of West Virginia – the state’s solely abortion clinic – a preliminary injunction towards the ban on Monday, opening the door for abortion companies to renew.

Salango mentioned that within the absence of motion by the courtroom, the state’s sole abortion clinic and its sufferers, “particularly those that are impregnated because of a rape or incest, are struggling irreparable hurt”.

Legal professional Normal Patrick Morrisey decried the ruling, calling it “a darkish day for West Virginia”, and mentioned his workplace would enchantment to the state Supreme Court docket.

West Virginia has a state regulation on the books courting again to the 1800s making performing or acquiring an abortion a felony, punishable by as much as a decade in jail. It gives an exception for circumstances during which a pregnant particular person’s life is in danger.

Legal professionals for the Ladies’s Well being Middle had argued that the outdated regulation is void as a result of it has not been enforced in additional than 50 years and has been outdated by a slew of contemporary legal guidelines regulating abortion that acknowledge a lady’s proper to the process.

One instance is West Virginia’s 2015 regulation, which permits abortions till 20 weeks of being pregnant.

“We applaud the courtroom’s choice to dam this archaic ban. Nobody needs to be pressured to hold a being pregnant to time period,” the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) said on Twitter in response to the decide’s ruling.

The case is considered one of a number of authorized battles being waged to form the post-Roe panorama within the US, as conservative states push for restrictions whereas the federal authorities and liberal states search for methods to take care of entry to abortion.

And the choice got here hours after a Louisiana decide prolonged a brief block on that state from imposing a so-called “set off” regulation ban designed to snap into impact if the excessive courtroom overturned Roe.

In line with the Guttmacher Institute, a reproductive rights group, not less than 26 US states are anticipated to attempt to ban abortion within the aftermath of the Supreme Court docket’s overturning of Roe on June 24. That landmark 1973 choice set out the constitutional proper to abortion within the nation.

Rights advocates have argued that abortion bans will disproportionately hurt Black individuals and low-income Individuals.

Within the West Virginia case, Decide Salango agreed with the Ladies’s Well being Middle of West Virginia’s argument that the regulation was successfully repealed by extra trendy, post-Roe statutes that “hopelessly battle” with the outdated one.

She known as it unfair to permit the state to take care of conflicting legal guidelines on its books and that the clinic and its sufferers have been struggling in consequence.

“It merely doesn’t matter if you’re pro-choice or pro-life,” she mentioned. “Each citizen on this state has a proper to obviously know the legal guidelines underneath which they’re anticipated to dwell.”

The Ladies’s Well being Centre suspended abortion companies on the day of the Supreme Court docket’s choice final month, which pressured staffers to cancel dozens of abortion appointments, fearing they or their sufferers could possibly be prosecuted underneath the outdated statute.

The clinic’s attorneys mentioned abortion companies are important well being care, and the state’s most susceptible residents are put in danger daily that they don’t have entry to that care.

UN condemns Mali’s ban on French media | Freedom of the Press News

Geneva, Switzerland – The UN Excessive Commissioner for Human Rights criticised Mali’s resolution to ban French media retailers and known as on its army rulers to reverse their resolution.

“We’re deeply dismayed by the Malian media regulator’s resolution to definitively droop Radio France Worldwide [RFI] and France24,” mentioned a spokesperson for Excessive Commissioner Michelle Bachelet on Friday.

“These suspensions are the newest in a string of actions curbing press freedom and the liberty of expression in Mali, and are available at a time when extra, not much less, scrutiny is required.”

Mali’s army leaders first imposed the suspensions on March 16, accusing the 2 broadcasters of airing false allegations about experiences of human rights violations by the military.

On Wednesday, the Excessive Authority for Communication introduced these provisional suspensions could be definitive.

Journalist associations have denounced a rise in assaults and smear campaigns in opposition to reporters over the previous 12 months, specifically in opposition to representatives of French media retailers. Overseas and native reporters overlaying Mali have denounced a worsening of the local weather for media professionals within the nation.

“We didn’t have this type of scrutiny earlier than,” mentioned a freelancer contributing to French media, who requested to not be named for safety considerations. “The state of affairs has bought worse since tensions between France and Mali began to extend. It’s a political situation.”

‘Pervasive chilling impact’

On Friday, the Committee to Defend Journalists additionally known as on the authorities to reverse their resolution to ban RFI and France 24.

“Malian authorities’ resolution to solidify these suspensions signifies simply how dedicated they’re to denying these of their nation entry to info,” mentioned Angela Quintal, CPJ’s Africa programme coordinator, in an announcement.

On February 6, French journalist Benjamin Roger, a reporter on project for Jeune Afrique, was arrested and expelled inside 24 hours of his arrival within the Malian capital, Bamako. The authorities mentioned the reporter didn’t have press accreditation. Every week earlier, they introduced it could turn out to be more durable for media representatives to acquire a media allow.

“Press accreditation has hardly ever been demanded till now,” mentioned Reporters With out Borders in an announcement, “and missing it has not prevented journalists from working freely.”

On April 8, Reporters With out Borders marked one 12 months from the kidnapping of French journalist Olivier Dubois, a correspondent for French publications Libération, Le Level, and Jeune Afrique. On March 14, the al Qaeda-linked Jama’a Nusrat ul-Islam wa al-Muslimin (JNIM), a coalition of armed teams, launched a video exhibiting he was nonetheless alive.

French assist employee Sophie Petronin was kidnapped in Gao in 2016 and launched after 4 years. In 2013, Ghislaine Dupont and Claude Verlon, two journalists of RFI, have been kidnapped and killed by gunmen within the Malian city of Kidal as they completed an interview with a Tuareg separatist chief.

A member of the Malian special forces stands guard during the ceremony that celebrates the national army day
A member of the Malian particular forces stands guard in Kati, Mali [File: Florent Vergnes/AFP]

In the meantime, the UN denounced how such a state of affairs is inducing these reporters who’re nonetheless contained in the nation to apply self-censorship.

“The present local weather is one with a pervasive chilling impact on journalists and bloggers,” UN Spokesperson Ravina Shamdasani advised reporters on Friday.

“Our workplace continues to doc critical allegations of violations of worldwide human rights legislation and worldwide humanitarian legislation in lots of components of the nation, and we stay severely involved by steps to additional shrink the already restricted civic area.”

Tensions between Mali and France have elevated since a army coup led by Colonel Assimi Goita on August 8, 2020, that overthrew elected President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita, who was supported by France.

In June 2021, France, a former colonial energy within the area, halted its joint army operations with Malian forces awaiting ensures that civilians return to positions of energy.

French President Emmanuel Macron introduced he would begin a withdrawal of troops, about 5,100 troopers, stationed within the area since 2013 below its so-called Operation Barkhane spanning 5 nations within the Sahel – Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger.

In response to the military’s energy seize in Mali, the Financial Group of West African States (ECOWAS) regional bloc and the African Union suspended Mali from their organisations and threatened sanctions.

In January, Malian Prime Minister Choguel Kokalla Maiga accused France of selling insecurity and division within the nation and expelled its ambassador.

Based on Reporters With out Borders, Mali is ranked 99th out of 180 nations within the 2021 World Press Freedom Index.